The Old Testament devotes considerable attention to describing the portable tent, or tabernacle, of the Jewish people built under the leadership of Moses. After the conquest of Canaan the tabernacle and its contents remained at Shiloh throughout the time of Judges. After Shiloh was destroyed (about 1050 BC), the Ark traveled through various Philistine cities and finally was brought to David's palace south of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, and then into the holy of holies of the First Temple dedicated by Solomon about 952 BC.

The First Temple geometrically resembled the tabernacle though it was twice as large and built of immense quantities of stone, cedar wood and lined with gold. [See Exodus 25-31; 35-40, Numbers 3:25 ff, 4: ff, also Philo (II Mos. 91) and Josephus (Ant. 3:122 ff). Moses built everything according to a pattern revealed to him on Mt. Sinai, Hebrews 8:5.]

After the First Temple was completed (I Kings 5-8), the Tabernacle of Moses was dismantled. It may have been stored in a room under the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. There is some evidence that it may still lie there to this day.

Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem and the First Temple on the 9th of Av 586 BC, the Jews were then taken captive to Babylon and the city had no center of worship until Zerubbabel and the returning exiles built the Second Temple, completing it in 516 BC.

The Second Temple, modest in comparison with its predecessor, was rebuilt and enlarged by Herod the Great beginning in 20 BC. Herod recruited 10,000 workman and set them to the task commencing in the 17th year of his reign. Josephus gives vivid descriptions of the Second Temple and its environs, and also records the terrible destruction by the Roman general Titus in 70 AD

I Kings 6 ff, I Chronicles 22 ff. 3, Ezra, Nehemiah and Haggai describe the rebuilding of the temple after the Babylonian captivity. This is the so-called "Second Temple" which Herod the Great later greatly enlarged. Jesus was dedicated in the Second Temple, He cast out money chambers there on two occasions, and He taught frequently in the temple courts.

During the 70 year captivity of the Jews in Babylon and again in the diaspora, just ending in the last century, the Jewish people have centered their worship of the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in synagogues around the world. Since the terrible destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans in AD 70, temple sacrifices, offerings, instruction, and worship have ceased in accordance with an Old Testament prophecy of Hosea (about 746 BC):
"For the children of Israel shall dwell many days without king or prince, without sacrifice or pillar, without ephod or teraphim. Afterward the children of Israel shall return and seek the LORD their God, and David their king; and they shall come in fear to the LORD and to his goodness in the latter days." (Hosea 3:4,5)
The regathering of the Jewish people to their homeland in our time (as predicted for example in Ezekiel 37) is being accompanied by a rapidly accelerating religious consciousness in Israel, the awakening of ancient longings and aspirations and the rediscovery of many immutable promises God has made to the chosen seed of Abraham. The fact that a Third Temple is to be built can be shown from the Tanach. But three passages in the New Testament also refer to such a building not now in existence as of this writing in 1996 AD. Many Christians have thus speculated in recent years about when the Third Temple would be built. This is considered by many to be an important milestone pointing to the end of the age.

The entire Temple Mount contains cisterns and passages most of which have been inaccessible since 70 AD. The Temple Mount proper was liberated from Jordanian control in the Six-Day War of 1967, but then returned by Israel to the custody of the Muslim Waqf (Jordan). The site is some 34 acres in extent with the prominent "Dome of the Rock" near the center and Al Aqsa mosque at the South end. Jews pray night and day at the Western Wall, which is below the Temple Mount, along a section of the great retaining wall of the Mount, in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City. The Western Wall as close as Jews can get these days to the site of their ancient temples.

Dr. Asher Kaufman, formerly of the Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, has for many years made careful studies on Mount Moriah leading him to believe the Temples of Solomon and Zerubbabel were both located just north of the Dome of the Rock on the paved platform area. The Holy of Holies is believed to have been approximately on the bedrock covered by a small shrine, the Dome of the Spirits. The Muslim stewards of the site have systematically destroyed or covered over all evidence that the site was once important to the Jews or to Christians.

Others, including Dan Bahat the Dean of Jerusalem archaeologists today, have argued persuasively that the First and Second Temples were most certainly located where the present Dome of the Rock shrine now stands. A third view is that of Architect Tuvia Sagiv who presents striking evidence that the Temple location was South of the Dome of the Rock, but North of Al Aqsa Mosque, under the present Muslim El Kas fountain.

The Temple Mount area is also the location of the birth of the Christian church at the feast of Pentecost which followed seven sabbaths plus one day after the death of Messiah. Neither Christians nor Jews are presently allowed to pray or worship on the site in spite of its historic importance to all of Abraham's children.

To go back even further in time the Temple Mount has great historical importance to the Jews. Abraham met a priest of the true God named Melchidezek at Mount Moriah about 4000 years ago (Genesis 14, Hebrews 5-7). A few years later, Abraham offered his son as a sacrifice there (Genesis 22), and King David purchased the site from a local resident named Ornan (I Chronicles 21), about 1015 BC.

Muslim claims to the Temple Mount date only from 638 AD. The Crusaders turned the Muslim buildings on the Mount into churches in 1099 until Saladin restored Arab rule of Jerusalem in 1187.

The New Testament makes only brief references to temples, in fact the Apostle Paul speaking to a crowd in Athens from Mars Hill said
"The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of Heaven and earth, does not live in shrines made by man, nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all men life, and breadth, and everything..." (Acts 17:24-25).

Instead, the emphasis of the New Covenant is the personal presence of Jesus as Messiah, Immanuel (which means "God with us") dwelling within and in the midst of his people whenever and wherever they gather in his name.

The New Testament opens with the four-gospel revelation of God's Son, Jesus. John in His gospel says that God in Christ "tabernacled" among men. Later in the First Century, both Paul and Peter call the true church "a living temple." Individual believers are "living stones" and Christ is Himself the foundation stone or the "chief cornerstone." For two thousand years of Biblical history the emphasis has been on assemblies or congregations of Christians or Jews, not on sacred buildings.

Yet there are at least three references in the New Testament to a temple building existing in Jerusalem in the future as noted above. From the context these references appear to refer to a new, or "Third Temple" yet to be built in the city. There has been growing interest since the rebirth of Israel in 1948 among the Jews for a central place of worship in their capital city. Although synagogues have served admirably as centers of worship and community for the Jews in their dispersion, a temple in Jerusalem on the exact site of the Second Temple is required by the Jews as a central house of prayer and focal point of the faith until Messiah comes.
Because of our sins we were exiled from our country and banished from our land. We cannot go up as pilgrims to worship Thee, to perform our duties in Thy chosen house, the great and Holy Temple which was called by Thy name, on account of the hand that was let loose on Thy sanctuary. May it be Thy will, Lord our God and God of our fathers, merciful King, in Thy abundant love again to have mercy on us and on Thy sanctuary; rebuild it speedily and magnify its glory. (The Jewish Prayer Book)
According to Maimonides it is incumbent on the Jews to maintain the temple in Jerusalem if it is in existence and to rebuild it speedily if it does not. Many Jews acknowledge from the Tanach that shedding of blood is associated with the remission of sins. Thus the restoration of animal sacrifices in a properly consecrated temple is seen as very important to them.

The Third Temple must be placed on the same spot of ground as the First and Second Temples because of the Jewish concept of zones of holiness on Yahweh's sacred mountain.

Jesus spoke of the Third Temple building in Jerusalem when discussing with his disciples the chain of events that would bring the close of the present age and his return. He spoke of an event yet future predicted by Daniel the prophet when the temple in Jerusalem would suffer ultimate defilement by a false Messiah who claimed to be God:
"So when you see the desolating sacrilege spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains; let him who is on the housetop not go down to take what is in his house; and let him who is in the field not turn back to take his mantle. And alas for those who are with child and for those who give suck in those days! Pray that your flight may not be in winter or on a sabbath. For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be." (Matthew 24:15-21)
Since only a properly consecrated temple can be defiled, this passage implies a functioning, dedicated Third Temple and priesthood in existence in the end time at the time Jesus said he would return. The apostle Paul, writing a few years later, describes this same event:
"Now concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our assembling to meet him, we beg you, brethren, not to be quickly shaken in mind or excited, either by spirit or by word, or by letter purporting to be from us, to the effect that the day of the Lord has come. Let no one deceive you in any way; for that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of perdition, who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God," (2 Thessalonians 2:1-4).
The coming false Jewish messiah, resembling his predecessor Antiochus Epiphanes (~175 BC), is the "worthless shepherd" spoken of by the prophet Zechariah - and the man Jesus spoke of when he said to the Jews, "I have come in my Father's name and you would not receive me. Another will come in his own name, him you will receive." (John 5:43) (See also Daniel 9:27, Revelation 13:18)

Finally, the existence of the Third Temple in Jerusalem at the close of the age is confirmed by the aged apostle John when he recorded the Book of the Revelation:
"Then I was given a measuring rod like a staff, and I was told 'Rise and measure the temple of God and the altar and those who worship there, but do not measure the court outside the temple; leave that out, for it is given over to the nations, and they will trample over the holy city for forty-two months."' (Revelation 11:1-2)
In contrast to the earthly city the Book of the Revelation, the last book of the New Testament, describes the heavenly city New Jerusalem, descending from space, as a city which contains no temple at all:
"And I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb. And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine upon it, for the glory of God is its light, and its lamp is the Lamb." (Revelation 21:22,23)
Evidently the Third Temple has a limited life time and use towards the close of the present age. Probably it will be destroyed in the "great earthquake" which is described by Ezekiel and in the Revelation as shaking Jerusalem just prior to the second coming of Jesus Christ. In fact, at the time (all) "the cities of the nations will fall."

Most Bible scholars agree that the end time tribulation period, Daniel's "Seventieth Week,' encompasses just seven years. So it seems safe to say that the Third Temple may be built and destroyed within a decade or two, perhaps less. It will probably remain consecrated and undefiled for at least 3-1/2 years. [Concerning the violent events and the great earthquake during the tribulation period see Isaiah 29:1-8, Revelation 6:12, 8:5, 11:13, 16:18-21, Ezekiel 38:19, Daniel 9:24-27, Zechariah 12-14.]

No one knows whether the Third Temple will be built before of after what Christians call "the rapture of the true church." Possibly the Third Temple will be built when the western political leader known as the Antichrist makes a peace treaty between Arabs and Jews as predicted by Daniel the prophet. A rabbinical school (or yeshiva) for the training of the priests for this temple is presently in existence in the Old City. Sacred vessels and priestly garments have been prepared. Cedar from Lebanon captured in the north during the war there in 1982 has been placed in storage for the next temple, and so on. Thus there has been considerable preparation for the Third Temple by the religious Jews of modern Jerusalem. Both the Ashkenazi and Sephardi Chief Rabbis of Jerusalem agree that such a temple will be built as soon as circumstances permit.

There may yet be a fourth Temple built in Israel-the prophet Zechariah (ca. 500 BC) says that Messiah, whom he calls the "Branch" will yet build a temple in Israel:
"Take from them (the exiles) silver and gold, and make a crown, and set it upon the head of Joshua, the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and say to him, 'Thus says the Lord of hosts, "Behold, the man whose name is the Branch: for he shall grow up in his place, and he shall build the temple of the Lord. It is he who shall build the temple of the Lord, and shall bear royal honor, and shall sit and rule upon his throne. And there shall be a priest by his throne, and peaceful understanding shall be between them both."' (Zechariah 6:13.)
Since orthodox Christians hold to a literal, physical return of Jesus, the construction of the Fourth Temple, they believe, would thus be the responsibility of their Lord, whom they believe to be Yeshua Hamashiach. This temple may well be that seen by Ezekiel (ca. 570 BC) in a vision. A temple that matches his description has never yet been built. Moreover, the Fourth Temple will evidently not be built at Jerusalem but possibly at Shiloh, some 31 km to the North:
"When you allot the land as a possession, you shall set apart for the Lord a portion of the land as a holy district, twenty-five thousand cubits long and twenty thousand cubits broad; it shall be holy throughout its whole extent. Of this a square plot of five hundred by five hundred cubits shall be for the sanctuary, with fifty cubits for an open space around it. And in the holy district you shall measure off a section twenty-five thousand cubits long and ten thousand broad, in which shall be the sanctuary, the most holy place. It shall be the holy portion of the land; it shall be for the priests, who minister in the sanctuary and approach the Lord to minister to him; and it shall be a place for their houses and a holy place for the sanctuary. Another section, twenty-five thousand cubits long and ten thousand cubits broad, shall be for the Levites who minister at the temple, as their possession for cities to live in."

"Alongside the portion set apart as the holy district you shall assign for the possession of the city an area five thousand cubits broad, and twenty-five thousand cubits long it shall belong to the whole house of Israel."

"And to the prince shall belong the land on both sides of the holy district and the property of the city, on the west and on the east, corresponding in length to one of the tribal portions, and extending from the western to the eastern boundary of the land. It is to be his property in Israel. And my princes shall no more oppress my people; but they shall let the house of Israel have the land according to their tribes." (Ezekiel 45:1-8.)
And also,
"Adjoining the territory of Judah, from the east side to the west, shall be the portion which you shall set apart, twenty-five thousand cubits in breadth, and in length equal to one of the tribal portions, from the east side to the west, with the sanctuary in the midst of it. The portion which you shall set apart for the Lord shall be twenty-five thousand cubits in length, and twenty thousand in breadth." (Ezekiel 48.)
According to many Bible scholars, the fourth or "millennial temple" (Ezekiel 40-45), will be memorial, a teaching center to instruct men about the holiness of God and proper worship. As sinful men and women continue to be born into the world in the Millennium the temple is supposed to remind everyone of the substitutionary death of Jesus on the cross, as the "Lamb of God," some two thousand years earlier.

Though the Biblical emphasis is never on temple buildings but on men and their character, scripture does not negate the use of shadows and symbols. Literal physical realities are said to be given in order to teach about the enduring, permanent spiritual realities they point to.
"Thus says the Lord: 'Heaven is my throne and the earth is my footstool; what is the house which you would build for me, and what is the place of my rest. All these things my hand has made, and so all these things are mine, says the Lord. But this is the man to whom I look, he that is humble and contrite in spirit and trembles at my word."' (Isaiah 66:1, 2)
See Also:

Lambert Dolphin
Lambert Dolphin's Library
The Temple Mount Web Site
October 8, 1990, September 25, 2002
spelling and punctuation checked 26July02 RPS

Visiting The Temple Mount

by Lambert Dolphin
Walk about Zion,
go round about her,
number her towers,
consider well her ramparts,
go through her citadels;
that you may tell the next generation that this is God,
our God for ever and ever.
He will be our guide for ever. 
(Psalm 48:12-14)

The Old City and the Temple Mount

Today a visitor can enter the Old City of Jerusalem by one of seven gates. Some gates were named by location. The Jaffa Gate faces West towards Tel Aviv and Joppa. The Damascus Gate is in the North wall where a traveler would enter if he had come from Galilee, the Golan Heights and Damascus. The Zion Gate is, logically, on Mt. Zion near the traditional Tomb of David and site of the Upper Room of the Last Supper. The Dung Gate faces South towards the Hinnom Valley where refuse from the city was dumped in former times into the Hinnom Valley. The Sheep Gate (or, St. Stephen's Gate, or Lion's Gate) is next to the sheep market, and so on.

The present walls around the Old City were built from 1537 to 1541 by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent after the Ottoman conquest of Israel. At that time most of the ancient walls were reduced to rubble. Suleiman ordered that Jerusalem be fortified to protect its people against marauding Bedouins.

The walls were rebuilt upon the foundations of the walls constructed during the time of the Second Temple and the later Roman expansion. For the most part, the modern gates of the city are not closely related to the walls and gates that existence in Roman times or earlier. There is some debate about the correct location of some of the ancient gates and walls. However visitors to the recently restored Jewish Quarter in the Old City can see an uncovered section of the wall built by Nehemiah at the time of the return from the Babylonian exile.

The Old City retains its charm and fascination to this days. Narrow crowded shops and the Oriental bazaar with its many markets offer endless adventure for visitors and pilgrims. It is hard to escape the feeling that one has stepped in the timeless, changeless past. Each quarter of the Old City brings an immediate shift in architecture and shops, in passers-by and inhabitants alike.

The Temple Mount is conspicuous whether viewed from the Mount of Olives, or from the Lutheran church tower across from the Holy Sepulcher, or from the Citadel Museum roof. Normally tranquil and peaceful with its park like setting, one would hardly guess that this small parcel of land - less than 50 acres - is the center of the world and the hottest piece of real estate anywhere on earth. Biblically speaking, it's most exciting history lies yet ahead.

The Golden Gate

The Golden Gate is the most important and most impressive gate in Jerusalem, and the only visible entrance to the city of Jerusalem from the East. This oldest of all the gates to the city was the only one not rebuilt by Suleiman the Magnificent in AD 1539-42. Monolithic stones in the wall just above ground have been identified as 6th Century BC masonry from the time of Nehemiah, (Biblical Archaeological Review [BAR], Mar/Apr 1992, p40).

The Golden Gate was walled up by the Arabs in the year 810. It has remained closed now for nearly 12 centuries.
The Muslim name of the gate is Bab al-Dhahabi. It is a now-closed double gate. The North portal is known as Bab al-Tawba, the Gate of Repentance, and the Southern Portal, Bab al-Rahma, the Gate of Mercy.

The ancient Eastern gate to Jerusalem could be the one mentioned as the "Beautiful Gate" in Acts 3:2,10. The term Golden Gate may have been derived from the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible:
"In the earliest Greek New Testament, the word for 'beautiful' is oraia. When Jerome translated the New Testament into Latin in the 4th Century he changed the Greek oraia into the similar sounding Latin aurea, rather than to the Latin word for 'beautiful.' So the Latin Vulgate text read 'Golden Gate' instead of 'Beautiful Gate.'" (BAR, Jan/Feb 1983, p.27).
[Addendum: It is now clear that the "Beautiful Gate" was not the the "Golden Gate" in the Eastern Wall, but rather the outermost entrance to the temple itself.]
The Golden Gate has long interested many Muslims, most Jews and Christians as the place of the Last Judgment. Historically, judgments were rendered in the gates of the city (Gen. 19:1, 23:10, for instance). Since the Messiah was to come from the East (Matthew 24:27), it was concluded that his judgment would be at the eastern gate. This is one reason for the many Muslim, Christian, and Jewish graves on the Eastern slopes of the Temple Mount, in the Kidron Valley, and on the Western slopes of the Mount of Olives

Some Muslims place Allah's final judgment at this location also. Jews link the Messiah's arrival with this gate and Christians have for centuries associated the Golden Gate with Palm Sunday and also with the Second Advent (Luke 19:35-38).

Jews expect the Messiah to come through the Golden Gate, Muslims also expect Jesus to return to our world at the end of the age to participate in the final judgment. Christians believe it will be Jesus Christ who will conduct that final judgment. Zechariah 14:4-5 clearly states that the Messiah of Israel will return to Jerusalem from the summit of the Mount of Olives and then surely proceed into Jerusalem from the East, in the direction of the Golden Gate.

Muslims compare the final judgment of mankind to the crossing of a narrow knife blade which stretches from a mountain (the Mount of Olives is often mentioned in Arab legend) to the "gate of heaven." This knife-edged bridge evidently spans the Kidron Valley - as did an ancient stone bridge in Roman times.

Because of the Messianic association with the Golden Gate - which clearly symbolizes both judgment and mercy because of the Arabic names attached to the gate - adherents to all three faiths have wanted to be buried as close as possible to the Golden Gate. The assumption was that the dead in the immediate vicinity would be the first to be raised. In the Middle Ages the Jews were forbidden to bury on Mount Moriah. Instead they buried their dead opposite the gate and to the South on the Mount of Olives. This Jewish cemetery is the oldest in continuous use anywhere in the world. A burial plot, it is said, if it were available there, could cost $50,000 or more. The Christian cemetery lies in the bottom of the Kidron Valley (in sad condition) while the Muslim burial area covers the eastern Temple Mount hillside up to and surrounding the Golden Gate.
At the end of the First Temple period the eastern gate was closed (see Ezekiel XLIV, I. "Then he brought me back the way of the outer gate of the sanctuary which looketh toward the east; and it was shut.")During the Second Temple period this was the site of the Shushan Gate, mentioned in the Mishnah (Middot 1, 3), or the Eastern Gate (Nehemiah III, 29). A causeway supported by arches ran from the gate across the Kidron Valley, and was known as the Causeway of the Heifer, since the High Priest used this way to reach the Mount of Olives where the ritual burning of the Red Heifer took place, to purify the pilgrims with its ashes(Parah 111, 6; Shekalim IV, 2).
The Mercy Gate, 257 m north of the south-eastern corner of the Temple Mount, is the most beautiful of all the gates of Jerusalem. It is approached from within the Temple Mount by twenty-two stairs, which lead into a magnificent entrance, decorated with unusually intricate carvings of acanthus leaves, which appear to be moving. The gateroom is a hall with six domes supported by huge marble pillars. On the east side of the hall are two gateways, now blocked up, beautifully decorated on the outside.
The New Testament (Acts IlI 2) calls this the Beautiful Gate; it may therefore be assumed to have existed during the period of Aelia Capitolina. However, its present beauty was not attained until the reign of Justinian, in honour of the Christian tradition which fixes this as the site of Jesus' entry to the Temple courtyard. The gate was probably open during the Byzantine period, and the Emperor Heraclius entered through it after taking Jerusalem in 629. After the Muslim Conquest, when the Dome of the Rock and the EI-Aksa Mosque were built, it was blocked to prevent unsupervised access to the mosque area.
AI-Muqaddasi (985) mentions two arches to this gate, the southern one called Bab e-Rahma (Gate of Mercy) and the northern one Bab e-Tauba (Gate of Repentance); both were closed. The double gate is also mentioned by Nasir i-Khosrau (1047) and Mujir e-Din (1496). Shams e-Din e-Suyuti, who visited Jerusalem in 1470, ascribes a reference in the Koran (LVII, v3) to this gate: "Then there will separate them a wall wherein is a gate, the inner side whereof containeth mercy, while the outer side thereof is toward the doom." According to this verse the inner gate, containing mercy, is Bab e-Rahma, while the outer one is Bab e-Tauba, indicating the punishment in Gehenna. The Kidron Valley is known in Arabic, among other names, as Wadi Jehennum (Valley of Gehenna) implying punishment and torture. The gate is also known in Arabic as Bab el-Dahariyeh (Gate of Eternity), recalling the visions of Joel (IV, 2 and 12), or the Twin Gate, because of its shape, which can be seen quite clearly from the Mount of Olives. In the time of the Crusaders it was opened twice a year on Christian festivals: once in the spring, on Palm Sunday, recalling Jesus' triumphal entry to the city through this gate (St. Matthew XXI, 1-8); and once in the autumn, to commemorate the entry of the Emperor Heraclius. The gate was finally closed under Turkish rule.
Charles Warren examined the gate in 1867-69 and found a wall descending 13 m below the level of the gate, the wall of the Temple Mount at this point is thus 20 m high. 80 m further north Warren found the base of the wall at a depth of 40 m. Schick cleaned the gate in 1891. It is to be hoped that this magnificent gate will again served its original purpose, making possible pilgrimages to the Temple Mount from the Mount of Olives. (Menashe Har-El, This is Jerusalem, Canaan Publishing House, PO Box 7645, Jerusalem 1977)
The pillars of the Golden Gate are said to be a gift of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon according to one ancient legend, but these would not be part of the present gate above the surface of the ground which is too recent.

Some scholars have noted that the double gates of repentance and mercy contrast not only Law and Grace but are reminders of the two bronze pillars, Jachin, "in his counsel" and Boaz, "by his strength" which stood in the front of the First Temple. James 2:13 notes that God is just, but that his mercy "triumphs" over judgment. According to James, although God is just and must judge the world with equity and impartiality, the mercy of God is a greater and higher attribute of the God of the Bible. He is ready to forgive all who seek him, and his mercy abounds.

Penitents to the Temple entering the courts through the Northern Gate of Repentance in Temple Times could seek the forgiveness of the living God by sacrifice and petition in the Temple, and leave by the Southern Gate having obtained mercy and grace. The Golden Gate is thus a wonderful reminder of the unchanging character of God.

The interior corridors of the Golden Gate are exceptionally beautiful and well-built according to published reports. Sadly, visitors to the Temple Mount today are not allowed to inspect the interior of the Golden Gate. Nor can tourists walk through the Muslim cemetery along the Eastern Wall to inspect the exterior of the gate. One can only hope that this gate can be reopened in the near future and fully restored for access to the Temple site by all nations.
Thus says the LORD: "Keep justice, and do righteousness, for soon my salvation will come, and my deliverance be revealed. Blessed is the man who does this, and the son of man who holds it fast, who keeps the sabbath, not profaning it, and keeps his hand from doing any evil." Let not the foreigner who has joined himself to the LORD say, "The LORD will surely separate me from his people"; and let not the eunuch say, "Behold, I am a dry tree." For thus says the LORD: "To the eunuchs who keep my sabbaths, who choose the things that please me and hold fast my covenant, I will give in my house and within my walls a monument and a name better than sons and daughters; I will give them an everlasting name which shall not be cut off. "And the foreigners who join themselves to the LORD, to minister to him, to love the name of the LORD, and to be his servants, every one who keeps the sabbath, and does not profane it, and holds fast my covenant - these I will bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer; their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be accepted on my altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples. (Isaiah 56:1-7)
In the year 1969 Jerusalem archaeologist James Fleming was investigating the Eastern wall of the Temple where a Muslim cemetery has long been located. It had rained heavily the night before and the ground remained soggy the next day. As he investigated the area immediately in front of the Golden Gate, the ground beneath his feet gave way and he dropped into a hole about eight feet deep. Fleming found himself "knee-deep in bones" and became suddenly aware he had fallen into a mass burial site. To him, the most amazing aspect of this incident was his clear view of five large wedge-shaped stones set into a massive arch. It appeared he had discovered an ancient gate under the present Golden Gate:
"Then I noticed with astonishment that on the eastern face of the turret wall, directly beneath the Golden Gate itself, were five wedge-shaped stones neatly set in a massive arch spanning the turret wall. Here were the remains of an earlier gate to Jerusalem, below the Golden Gate, one that apparently had never been fully documented." (BAR, Jan./Feb. 1983, p30)
Very soon after this discovery the Muslims covered the chamber, cemented over the top, and surrounded the mass grave with a protective iron fence. Sadly, this means it is unlikely that Israeli archaeologists will be able to excavate the gate under the Golden Gate in the near future. In contrast visitors to the Damascus Gate are now able to visit an ancient, restored old Roman gate beneath the present Damascus Gate (the present upper Damascus Gate was reconstructed in 1537-38).

Josephus states (Wars V, 184-189) that the Eastern temple enclosure wall was the only one not rebuilt by Herod the Great. The ancient gate beneath the Golden Gate may therefore date from Solomonic times or at least from the time of Nehemiah. Such a view of consistent with Asher Kaufman's view that the First and Second Temples were located 110 meters North of the Dome of the Rock in the immediate vicinity of the small Dome of the Tablets shrine on the main temple platform.
"Moreover, it now seems clear that before the Golden Gate was constructed, the entrance to the Temple Mount from outside the city was in exactly the same location. Recently, part of an arch was discovered directly beneath the Golden Gate. This partial arch definitely belongs to an older gate, a gate that many date even to Solomonic times." (Asher Kaufman, BAR, March/April 1983, p. 45).
The mid-point of the Golden Gate is 348 feet North of the East-West center line of the Dome of the Rock allowing a straight-line access into the temple courts from the East assuming Kaufman's theory is correct. Kaufman's model for the location of the First and Second Temples lines up the Temples, the Golden Gate and the Red Heifer Altar on the Mount of Olives. Kaufman's location for the site of the Red Heifer offering is a small walled garden owned by the Armenian Church. It is located just across the summit road from the Muslim Mosque of the Ascension which is a traditional location for the place of the Ascension of Jesus Christ into heaven. Kaufman believes the Red Heifer altar site would have been sanctified ground made holy by a system of underground arches beneath the garden designed to prevent any defilement from dead bodies from seeping upwards to the sanctified ground. There are locked cisterns in the garden which could be explored to test Kaufman's hypothesis. Our scientific team sought to obtain the necessary permission to explore the garden cisterns from the Armenian Patriarch in our science and archaeology work in Israel in 1983, however it was not granted to us at that time.

Rubble and earth, and the Muslim cemetery, extend high up on the Eastern Wall of the Temple Mount. Thus very little is known about the lower portions of this wall below the present ground level.
Ezekiel 43:1-9 supports the Jewish tradition that the entire Temple Mount as well as the Temple itself is set aside in a special way for the service of the Holy One of Israel. God has evidently been, over many centuries, offended by the many defilements of this area. Cemeteries, tombs and burial places as well as idolatrous shrines are clearly inappropriate in the vicinity of the Temple Mount. Apparently these graves must all be removed before a temple acceptable to Yahweh can be built there:
Afterward he [the Angel of the LORD] brought me [Ezekiel] to the gate, the gate [of the temple] facing east. And behold, the glory of the God of Israel [the Shekinah] came from the east; and the sound of his coming was like the sound of many waters; and the earth shone with his glory. And the vision I saw was like the vision which I had seen when he came to destroy the city, and like the vision which I had seen by the river Chebar; and I fell upon my face. As the glory of the LORD entered the temple by the gate facing east, the Spirit lifted me up, and brought me into the inner court; and behold, the glory of the LORD filled the temple.

While the man was standing beside me, I heard one speaking to me out of the temple; and he said to me, "Son of man, this is the place of my throne and the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the people of Israel for ever. And the house of Israel shall no more defile my holy name, neither they, nor their kings, by their harlotry, and by the dead bodies of their kings, by setting their threshold by my threshold and their doorposts beside my doorposts, with only a wall between me and them. They have defiled my holy name by their abominations which they have committed, so I have consumed them in my anger. Now let them put away their idolatry and the dead bodies of their kings far from me, and I will dwell in their midst for ever.

The Western Wall of the Temple Mount

The Western Wall is a one quarter mile long retaining wall that today forms the western boundary of the Temple Mount. A 185 foot section that is exposed is an open air prayer area, Ha Kotel - known in earlier times as the Wailing Wall. The Western Wall was not part of either Temple. Rather it was one of the four retaining walls that surrounded the Temple Mount supporting the platform on which the Temple formerly stood. It was built by Herod the Great in order to enlarge the Temple Mount so that he could enlarge the worship area, beautify it and add more buildings to the Temple complex. When the Romans destroyed the Temple in AD 70 they left standing most of the retaining walls to commemorate the magnitude of their victory. It is the only remaining portion of the Second Temple.

About fifty percent of the Western Wall is below ground at the present plaza level. The Tyropoean (or Cheesemaker's) Valley in the vicinity of Robinson's arch has been filled to great depth over the years, (that is, not far from the Southwest corner of the Temple Mount wall). To the left as one faces the wall only the tops of huge gigantic arches are exposed above ground. See Cross Sectional Maps of the Temple Mount area).
The now-famous "Rabbinical Tunnel" runs underground at the plaza level through the North end of the room formed by the arch closest to the Western Wall. (See The Rabbinical Tunnel).

The Southern Wall of the Temple Mount

The late Benjamin Mazar and Meir Ben Dov cleared the Southern Wall and surrounding area in recent decades exposing late Islamic palaces, and the bedrock and original steps leading onto the Temple Mount from the City of David which is to the South (and much lower in elevation). Three groups of gates (closed) may be seen in the southern wall. The Single Gate, 100 feet from the south-east corner, probably dates from the Crusaders and was repaired by the Mamelukes. The Triple Gate, about 275 feet from the SE corner, is at the site of one of the two pairs of Huldah Gates of the Second Temple. The Double Gate, south of El-Aksa mosque is the second pair of the Huldah Gates (Mishnah Middot 1:3). During the Second Temple period these two gates divided the Temple Mount into three almost equal sections. The interior of these gates and their openings onto the Temple Mount have long been closed to visitors by the Muslims. (See Solomon's Stables and the Southern Gates).

The Temple Esplanade

The Haram esh-Sharif, or Noble Sanctuary, as the Muslims call the Temple Mount, is a garden plaza containing many varied structures such as paved platforms, domes (qubbeh), prayer niches (mihribs), fountains and arcades (mawwazin). In the course of time the Temple Mount has acquired a large number of fountains (sabil) and small shrines, minarets from the Mamaluk period (manara or maazneh), prayer platforms (mutasalla) Many of these Islamic features were installed as gifts from important visitors caliphs and potentates. Religious schools (madraseh) and various offices may be found around the perimeter. In the compound today there are about one hundred structures, both large and small.

Entering the Mount from the Mograbi Gate the visitor will find an Islamic Museum immediately to the right. The Islamic Museum contains a good collection of Byzantine and Islamic antiquities.

Slightly east of the Museum is the cavernous El-Aksa Mosque, a huge rectangular, largely unadorned, structure featuring a small gray dome. This present building dates from the 10th Century when it accepted that Jerusalem was masjid el-aksa, "the furthermost sanctuary." The glacial marble columns, a gift from Mussolini, date from the most recent major restoration of 1938-1942. The first mosque on the site, that of the Caliph Abd el Malek ibn Mirwan, (or his son El-Walid), was built between 709 and 715 AD, but was twice destroyed by earthquakes in the first 60 years of its existence. After the capture of Jerusalem in 1099, the mosque became the first royal residence and then the headquarters of the Knights Templars. Saladin tore down many of the Crusader additions and later Mamluk sultans made additions and changes. An ascending passage from the walled-up double gates in the Southern Wall of the temple compound rises to the surface of the present platform just North of the mosque.

While the Dome of the Rock rests on the bedrock of Mt. Moriah, El-Aksa mosque is supported on pillars, fill, and vaults from below. This makes the building more susceptible to earthquakes of course. Severe earthquake damage occurred in 774, 777, and 1033 according to historic records. The building was built on the foundations of a Byzantine church built during the reign of Justinian and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Byzantine historian Procopius wrote that the church was built in 560 AD and burned down by the Persians in 614.

The dome of the El-Aksa mosque is approximately 50 feet high, constructed of wood sheathed in lead. The dome is supported by four arches and eight pillars and was last restored in 1927.

The mosque today capable of housing 5000 worshipers, is divided by a central nave and two transepts. The North-South nave is supported by seven arches. The building contains 114 columns and 135 windows and is vast in size: 240 feet long (N-S) and 165 feet wide. El-Aksa has been much modified during its history, after the Ummayyad period especially. The Crusader occupation of Jerusalem brought numerous changes after 1099 and of course these were reversed and additional changes made after Saladin restored Jerusalem to Muslim control.

Solomon's Stables are underground vaulted chambers at the southeast corner of the Temple Esplanade, built by Herod to support the Temple platform. The name suggests one of the many stables for horses built by Solomon, but these rooms were not in existence in the time of Solomon. These rooms were stables during the time the Crusaders occupied Jerusalem. As we have noted, the bedrock of Mount Moriah is more or less level from the Dome of the Rock northwards, but to the south the elevation drops very rapidly. The entire southern end of the Temple Mount compound was built up by Herod the Great. The south-eastern corner, for instance, has a retaining wall almost 150 feet high with at least 100 feet of rubble fill on the inside. In places the walls of the temple mount are 15 feet thick with individual ashlars weighing 150 tons or more. The two halls comprising Solomon's Stables have an area of nearly 5000 square feet. Eighty-eight rows of pillars and arches as much as 30 feet wide were used to raise the ceiling some 36 feet to the level on the present paved area East of El-Aksa mosque.

The Pinnacle of the Temple where Jesus was tempted by the devil (Matthew 4:1-11) has been traditionally associated with the south-eastern corner of the Temple Mount because of the great height above the Kidron Valley below. The recent discovery on an inscribed stone at the south-west corner indicated that corner was "the place of trumpeting" (blowing of the Shofar) has raised the possibility that the second temptation of Jesus took place there.

Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History, 2:23) tells us that James the Just, brother of Jesus and pastor of the early Christian church in Jerusalem was martyred by being thrown down from the pinnacle of the temple mount. He survived the fall and was then stoned, praying for forgiveness for his persecutors as he died. Stephen, the first martyr of the Christian church (Acts 6:8-7:60) was also martyred near the temple mount ("outside the city"). The gate that bears his name commemorates the traditional area where he finally died.

North of the Mosque is the Al Kas Fountain, first built in 709. It is used by the Muslims for ritual washing before prayer. Older guide books say the fountain is fed from the ancient aqueduct that brought water to the Temple Mount from Solomon's Pools and the hills of Bethlehem. Mameluke Emir Tankaz es-Nasr enlarged the fountain in 1327-28. Although originally supplied with water from Solomon's pools, today it is connected by pipes to the city water supply.

The Sabil Quait Bay is an ornate fountain which was a gift from Sultan Quait Bey in 1487. It lies below the platform area West of the Dome of the Rock.

At the top of eight stairways are the Graceful Arcades (qanatir) which lead to the raised platform of the Mount. According to Muslim tradition, scales (mawazin) to weight the souls of humanity will be hung from these Arcades at the end of time. Near the north-west qanatir is the Dome of the Spirits or Dome of the Tablets, a small cupola with floor of bedrock. The reference is said to be either to the Spirit of God, or to the tablets of the Law of Moses housed originally in the Ark of the Covenant. Asher Kaufman places the location of the Holy of Holies at this Dome in his studies of the location of the First and Second Temples.

The Dome of the Chain (Qubbet es-Silsileh), constructed in the 8th Century and ascribed to Abd el-Malek, was probably used as a treasury by Arabs to store silver. When the Crusaders conquered the Mount they dedicated it as a chapel to St. James the Less. The structure has six inner and eleven outer supporting pillars. They can all be seen simultaneously when viewed from any angle.

The Summer Pulpit (Minbar es-Saif) , of marble, was probably built by Saladin in 1190 and later restored in 1456 by Burhan ed Din (his name is inscribed thereon). It was later restored again by the Turkish emir Mohammed Rashid in 1483. It is sometimes referred to as Minbar Omar and is used for Muslim open-air prayers to this day, during summer months.

The Dome of the Ascension (Qubbet el-Mi'Araj), built around 1200, commemorates Mohammed's leap into the heavens, or at least the place he has supposed to have prayed before his ascension. It is a copy of a Byzantine Dome on the Mount of Olives that marks the spot of Jesus' Ascension according to Islamic tradition. The existence of this structure, built from Crusader materials, suggests that the Dome of the Rock may not have been the exact spot of Mohammed's alleged ascent into paradise.

A small dome, the Dome of the Prophet (E-Nabi), stands east of the Dome of the Rock and was built by the Turkish governor of Jerusalem, Muhammed Bey in 1538. It houses a well-built mihrab, or prayer niche facing Mecca.

Grammar Dome (Qubbet es-Nahawwiyah) stands at the southwest corner of the platform. It was built during the reign of Sultan Mu'atham 'Issa in 1217 of marble slabs probably taken from a Crusader building. As the name suggests it was originally a place for studying Arab literature and grammar.

The Dome of the Prophet Elijah (Qubbet el-Khadr) is an open dome at the northwest corner of the platform supported by six marble columns with an interior place for prayer.

Popular guidebooks of Jerusalem will allow visitors to the Temple Mount to identify other interesting features on the Mount. Sadly, the Muslim guides may not allow those interested to approach or inspect many of these historically and archaeologically interesting structures. The Temple Mount is often open only a few days per week, and for at most a few hours. These days it is difficult to see anything more than the main features of the Temple Mount area.

The Dome of the Rock is not true mosque but a shrine. Begun about 688 and finished about 691 (other writers say 692 to 697) - it is the first and oldest Islamic shrine in the world. This octagonal structure is one of the most beautiful edifices in the Middle East. The interior contain two concentric rows of pillars - the inner circle supports the dome, and the outer circle the best of the building. The inner circle of pillars, about 60 feet in diameter - encloses exposed bed rock which rises several feet above the floor. This is traditionally the famous Foundation Stone. The dome-supporting pillars are sixteen in number, twelve of marble and four of granite. Sixteen windows in the cupola are made of colored glass against a background of gold. Some of these windows go back to the 15th Century, but most date from the 18th and 19th. The octagonal walls of the building itself contain 56 windows, 7 in each wall. The outer circle of pillars supporting the building consists of eight of marble and sixteen of colored granite - 24 in all. These pillars are topped by capitals which may have come from Herod's temple, or possibly from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher destroyed by the Persians in 614 AD At the beginning of the tenth century the cupola was sheathed in brass and then covered with gold. This was later changed to lead.

Two earthquakes in the 11th Century shook the Dome at which time the upper mosaic was replaced. Fires and earthquakes over the centuries have necessitated further repairs and changes. Most recently, persistent leaks in the roof have led to major renovations and a million-dollar gift of gold leaf from the government of Saudi Arabia has made possible the recovering of the Dome with real gold leaf replacing the previous gold-colored anodized aluminum.

The underground areas of the Temple Mount are the most interesting features in the whole area from the standpoint of history and archaeology. Largely inaccessible for centuries, many of the cisterns and a few of the tunnels and rooms were explored more than a hundred years ago by the Palestine Exploration Society. Nevertheless a fair understanding of what lies beneath the surface has been pieced together by diligent and careful researchers, some motivated by archaeology, and others by a desire to locate the foundation of the First and Second Temples and associated storage rooms.
Addendum: The Wall of Jerusalem
Guardians of the city
Turkish Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, a brilliant military strategist, cunning politician and eloquent poet, was having a very bad night. He tossed and turned, dreaming that lions had chased him in a field and greedily fed upon his body. Waking up in a sweat, he called frantically for his advisers. "What does it all mean?" he asked shakily. "You must do a good deed," he was told. "Why not rebuild the crumbling walls of the Holy City of Jerusalem?"
Scholars have a different explanation for the Turkish walls that have surrounded Jerusalem since 1538 and never been breached. Some say that Suleiman heard rumors of a new Crusade in the making - and that's why he decided to fortify Jerusalem. Others think he repaired the walls to ward off Bedouin marauders.
Whatever the reason, the Old City of Jerusalem has been completely enclosed in strong, decorative walls since the 16th century. Four kilometers in length, the walls are 12 meters high, studded with towers and topped with crenelations.
A wonderful half-day outing takes you on a circular stroll around the Old City walls with stops at seven Turkish gates, each with a very special name and design, and one that is far more ancient. Take into account a fairly steep ascent between the Golden Gate and Zion Gate. There is a nice little park along the northern wall.
Begin at the colorful and bustling Damascus Gate market, where you can buy anything from tennis shoes to electric teapots. This area of the city is the hub of east Jerusalem commerce, and Damascus Gate is the loveliest of all entrances to the Old City. As you walk around the walls, you will find them topped by continuous crenelations - tooth-like projections. It is only here at Damascus Gate that they are replaced by decorative statuettes.
Called Sha'ar Shechem in Hebrew, the gate faces north, and in the past a road led directly to Nablus (Shechem) and from there to Damascus. In Arabic, it is called Bab al-Amud - Gate of the Pillar - because in Roman times a giant column topped with a full statue of the Emperor Hadrian stood in the center of its inner plaza. During the Byzantine period, this was known as St. Stephen's Gate for, according to Christian tradition, the martyr Stephen was dragged out of the city through this gate and stoned to death somewhere on the other side of today's road.
There is a small entrance to the right of the gate below today's street level. Flanked by two massive, broken columns, it was part of a monumental triple victory arch built in 135 after Emperor Hadrian crushed the Bar Kochba Revolt and turned Jerusalem into the Roman city called Aelia Capitolina.
Five different parapets are built into the walls and towers as a defensive measure. Their floors contain machicolations, openings from which soldiers could dump boiling oil or hot tar on an enemy invader beneath the walls.
FOLLOW THE stone pedestrian walkway to Zedekiah's Cave, an enormous cavern over 200 meters long and chock full of labyrinths and inner grottoes. Early masons quarried stones from inside this cave to build the Second Temple - and perhaps even the first.
During the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem in 586 BCE, King Zedekiah managed to flee the city, only to be captured in Jericho. Since he is believed to have run straight for this cave, tradition holds that at the time it stretched all the way to Jericho. Inside, you can explore its depths and study the art of quarrying. At the far end, a little spring drips Zedekiah's tears.
Soon you reach Flower Gate, which was added in 1875. The original Turkish entrance is on the side, where you will see the flower decoration that may have given this gate one of its names. A few centuries ago, pilgrims who mistook a fancy Muslim house for Herod's Palace gave the entrance yet another name: Herod's Gate.
Continue east, not forgetting to examine the walls and towers for unusually decorative elements. Just before the traffic light at the corner, climb two short flights of stairs to reach a monument to Jordanian soldiers who fell during the Six Day War. This spot offers a dazzling view of the Mount of Olives and northern Jerusalem - especially if it has recently rained.
Directly across from you a sprawling Brigham Young (Mormon) University covers the slopes. To its right, the beautiful Augusta Victoria Church tower reaches to the heavens, while on its other side you can easily make out the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus. The university's architect, who also planned Brigham Young, designed it to resemble the Old City with its crowded buildings and uneven skyline; the result is meant as a kind of architectural dialog.
Turn around to view Stork's Tower, situated on the wall's northeastern corner. Until 1948, when the Old City Walls marked the Jordanian border, hip Arab hostesses liked to serve fancy moonlit dinners on the stone floor of the massive, square tower. A Star of David from an earlier period is set into the wall.
NOW RETURN to the pedestrian walkway. Your next stop is at Lions' Gate, where the lions on both sides probably gave rise to the legend about Suleiman and his dream. A careful look will reveal, however, that the "lions" are really panthers - the emblem of a 13th-century Muslim conqueror named Baybars. This is where Israeli paratroopers broke into the city during the Six Day War.
By now you will have reached the spectacular Golden Gate, which opened directly onto the Temple Mount. Unlike the other gates, this was not built by the Turks. It was constructed in the seventh century over ruins dating back at least to Nehemiah (fifth century BCE) and possibly even to the time of Solomon.
The Golden Gate faces the Mount of Olives and is the oldest continuous Jewish cemetery in the world. The popularity of this cemetery derives from its proximity to the Golden Gate, through which Jews believe that the Messiah will pass when he enters Jerusalem. And, of course when the dead are resurrected and return to the city, they want to be first in line to follow him in.
Muslim rulers knew about this Jewish tradition, and they sealed the gate permanently shut. But they were afraid this might not be enough. So, aware that the Messiah would be of priestly lineage and unable to come anywhere near a cemetery, Muslims began burying their dead in front of the gate.
During the Middle Ages, and for some years afterward, Jewish pilgrims to the Holy Land would walk all the way around the walls of Jerusalem. When they reached this gate, so close to the Temple Mount, they would stop and beseech the Almighty to show His people compassion. And that may be how the gate got its second name of Sha'ar Harahamim: Mercy Gate.
Look up to see a pillar sticking horizontally out of the wall. According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad will one day sit on top and pass judgment on the people below.
Around the corner, a grayish black dome protruding above the wall tops the al-Aksa Mosque. Al-Aksa means "the edge" - and according to the Koran, Mohammed undertook a mysterious night journey to "the edge." While Jerusalem is never mentioned by name, Muslim tradition places "the edge" right here, making Jerusalem one of Islam's holy cities.
Your next stop is Dung Gate, which leads to the Western Wall. For thousands of years, residents of the city took their trash out through this gate, which offered easy access to an even better refuse site in the valley below. Some people believe the name derives, instead, from the horrid smell of tanners tanning their hides.
Just past Dung Gate stand the ruins of a tower from medieval times. It had a rear wicket for the tanners to use and now leads to Jerusalem's Ophel Excavations and Davidson Center. From the sidewalk, look inside and you will see Romans doing their shopping on a Cardo that originally stretched from Damascus Gate to the Temple Mount and from there to the City of David. (You are actually looking at a painting but, believe me, for a moment it can seem real.)
SOON YOU reach Zion Gate, which leads to the Jewish Quarter and stands between Mount Zion inside the walls of the Old City, and the portion of Mount Zion that was left outside. The gate's scarred exterior, riddled with bullet holes, offers mute witness to a battle that could have changed the course of Israeli history during the War of Independence.
Although Israeli forces conquered Mount Zion on the night of May 18th and broke the Jordanian siege of the Jewish Quarter, the following night most of the soldiers were withdrawn. And the handful of exhausted Jewish defenders that remained could not hold out against the might of the Jordanian army. Less than two weeks later, on May 28, the Jewish Quarter was forced to capitulate to the Arab Legion and the Old City fell to the Jordanians.
Just before a ceasefire was scheduled to make the situation permanent, Israel made a last-ditch attempt to break into the Old City. Continue about 100 meters to reach a large cone and a concrete slab inscribed with the date 18.7.1949. Soldiers lugged a 150-kilogram homemade cone-shaped bomb up Mount Zion stretcher-style, and set it down against the wall. Although the bomb caused a deafening explosion, it only scratched the surface. Jerusalem was doomed to remain a divided city for the next 19 years.
Turn at the corner and walk towards Jaffa Gate. Just past a tower built on Hasmonean and Herodian ruins, you will see 2,000-year-old steps that probably led to Herod's palace. What makes this theory so logical is the Herod family tomb located across the valley to your left and above Yemin Moshe. Climb the steps and turn left and you will be walking towards Jaffa Gate on what remains of the Hasmonean wall.
You may wonder about an incongruous hill of brown dirt, left here after tons of debris were cleared away from the walls in 1967. Believe it or not, until that time the top of that hill was street level and all these ancient ruins were buried underneath.
The Tower of David, actually a minaret from a mosque built for Muslim troops in the 14th century, now bursts into view in all its glory. The wide road leading into the city is new, and was prepared especially for the visit of Emperor Wilhelm II in 1898. Ottoman rulers breached a gap in the wall that connected Jaffa Gate with the Citadel, plugged up the adjacent moat and created a second and wider point of entry suitable for the emperor and his extensive entourage.
Exit through the smaller, original gate, from which a road once led directly to Jaffa. The 16th-century Arabic inscription over the entrance gives Suleiman's name, the year of construction and the following words: "there is no God but Allah and Abraham is his friend." That's why the Sultan's name for this entrance was Bab al-Khalil, the Gate of the Friend.
Follow the walkway to IDF Square (Kikar Tzahal) and then turn right. In back of the garden, at the bottom of the wall, stands the base of a tower. Legend has it that King David buried Goliath's head on this site - giving rise to the name "Goliath Tower." It is also called Tancred's Tower, for the Crusader commander who attacked the city from this direction on July 15, 1099.
Your last stop is at the New Gate, built at the end of the 1880s to make it easier to travel between Old Jerusalem and the Christian institutions built across the street. Until 1967, when Jerusalem was reunited, the road from here to Damascus Gate was strewn with twisted barbed wire and remnants from scorched armored vehicles. This was the border between Israel and Jordan called No-Man's Land.
One day, a terminal patient at the French Hospital across the road leaned out a window and coughed, her false teeth dropping right into No-Man's Land. It took meticulous maneuvering, and the good will of Israel, Jordan and the United Nations for a nun from the hospital to retrieve the set of teeth!
For permission to enter Zedekiah's Cave call: (02) 627-7550 ext. 4. The cost is NIS 16 per person (in a group). (From [link changed 6/17/13] for February 25, 2005).

End Notes

1. Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, The Holy Land, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992

2. Menashe Har-El, This is Jerusalem, Canaan Publishing House, Jerusalem 1977.
revised June 22, 1995, April 19, 1996, July 24, 1998, March 17, 2005, June 17, 2013 (addendum added).

On Understanding the Book of the Revelation

Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written in it; for the time is near." (Revelation 1:3)
When I came into a personal relationship with Jesus Christ over four decades ago I rushed right home from my pastor's office and read the Book of the Revelation straight through. As one might expect, the Apocalypse made little sense to me at the time, though it certainly intrigued me.
The Bible is an integrated document--in order to understand the individual books of the Bible, one must understand the whole--and vice versa. One by one the great themes of Scripture emerge in Genesis and are woven together throughout the Old and New Testaments. In Revelation these themes are all brought back together in a grand consummation of earth history requiring just over 400 verses.
Almost weekly some Bible prophecy enthusiast emails me his new interpretation of the Revelation. Or events in the news may trigger someone else writing to insist that a marvelous prediction in the last book of the Bible is right now being fulfilled before our very eyes. I was once in this class of Bible enthusiasts--excited and eager to jump to conclusions--so I don't mind reading far out ideas in the field of prophecy.
But also, a good many sincere and dedicated Bible scholars differ in their presuppositions about how the Book of the Revelation is to be interpreted. I am comfortable with what is called the "futurist" interpretation. My brief notes below follow that position.
The Apostle John, while imprisoned on the island of Patmos late in the First Century received this book by divine revelation. The original author--God the Father--addressed this letter to Jesus Christ, His Son--asking that it be passed along to John and to us. The Apocalypse is a unique book of the Bible in many ways.
In Chapter One we are given a grand picture of Jesus Christ as He is now in eternity. Especially emphasized is His role as Great High priest and Lord over the church.
Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen. "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End," says the Lord, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty." I, John, both your brother and companion in the tribulation and kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was on the island that is called Patmos for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus Christ. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's Day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet, saying, "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last," and, "What you see, write in a book and send it to the seven churches which are in Asia: to Ephesus, to Smyrna, to Pergamos, to Thyatira, to Sardis, to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea." Then I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands, and in the midst of the seven lampstands One like the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the feet and girded about the chest with a golden band. His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and His eyes like a flame of fire; His feet were like fine brass, as if refined in a furnace, and His voice as the sound of many waters; He had in His right hand seven stars, out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword, and His countenance was like the sun shining in its strength. And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. But He laid His right hand on me, saying to me, "Do not be afraid; I am the First and the Last. "I am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. And I have the keys of Hades and of Death" (1:7-18)
Chapters 2 and 3 (widely neglected today) contain the direct words of Jesus to seven representative local churches. From these letters we see the commendations and corrective admonitions from Jesus Himself which are perfectly applicable to churches today. A progression of church life down through the past 2000 years is evident in these letters. We are very likely now near the end of the age--in the final stage of church before the Lord returns:
"I know your works, that you are neither cold nor hot. I could wish you were cold or hot. "So then, because you are lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit you out of My mouth. "Because you say, 'I am rich, have become wealthy, and have need of nothing'--and do not know that you are wretched, miserable, poor, blind, and naked--I counsel you to buy from Me gold refined in the fire, that you may be rich; and white garments, that you may be clothed, that the shame of your nakedness may not be revealed; and anoint your eyes with eye salve, that you may see. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten. Therefore be zealous and repent. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears My voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and dine with him, and he with Me. To him who overcomes I will grant to sit with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne..." (3:15-21)
Chapter 4: An abrupt transition occurs at the end of these seven letters. John is caught up out of time and invited into the throne from of God. He sees events which for us are yet future and haven't happened yet. The principal activity of heaven is said to be worship and this is what one sees in Chapter 4. Innumerable angels are gathered in constant worship, singing and praying around the throne of God the Father. The Father is holding a mysterious seven-sealed scroll. A search is made of heaven and earth for a person who is qualified and worthy to receive this scroll and to execute its divine commands. Jesus--the slain Lamb--the Lion of the Tribe of Judah--is the only qualified recipient.
When Jesus takes the scroll from the hand of the Father the center of worship in heaven shifts to Jesus. The time has come for Jesus to invade earth's long dark history and to bring in God's kingdom on earth among men.

Come, Thou long expected Jesus
Born to set Thy people free;
From our fears and sins release us,
Let us find our rest in Thee.
Israel's strength and consolation,
Hope of all the earth Thou art;
Dear desire of every nation,
Joy of every longing heart.
Born Thy people to deliver,
Born a child and yet a King,
Born to reign in us forever,
Now Thy gracious kingdom bring.
By Thine own eternal Spirit
Rule in all our hearts alone;
By Thine all sufficient merit,
Raise us to Thy glorious throne.
(Charles Wesley 1744)
Revelation, as it is written, describes events occurring in the heavenly realm and then jumps to consider events happening on earth. However, earth clocks and heavenly clocks are not usually in lock-step! There are many symbols in the book of the Revelation, but most of the book is quite literal and real at the same time. Revelation is easier to understand if one can keep these discontinuities in time in mind--and the transitions back and forth between events in heaven and events taking place on earth. One must stop frequently and ask if something is symbolic or literal--or both. Often "both" is the best answer.
Revelation lays before us three sets of seven great judgments of God which will come upon our earth at the close of the present age. In between each of these sets of judgments we are given several "interludes" in which other important end-time events take place in heaven or on earth. Again, these other events are not necessarily in time-sync with the material just presented. The first such interlude, for instance, is actually a flashback of the type commonly used by an author who stops his story and backtracks to fill us in with events that have already taken place.
We are seeing here, then, not chronology but degrees of intensity. It is as though God keeps probing deeper and deeper into the events of the last days. The judgments of the seven seals give us a quick trip through this seven-year period that Daniel identifies as the last days. The trumpets, however, return as it were to a section of the last week and give us a different facet of judgment. That is what we are looking at in Chapters 8 and 9. When we come to the bowls of the wrath of God we will see still greater depths of earth's agony, but just how to fit it all into a time sequence is difficult. This is made still more confusing by the fact that certain break-off periods -- intermissions I have called them -- which focus on events of special interest, are occurring during this time. (Ray Stedman,
The great judgments of the end-time: the seven seals, seven trumpets, and seven bowls of wrath all cascade together and each series brings us to the very verge of the Second Coming of Jesus to earth. The index marker that points to this climax of history is a great earthquake. (See, which includes a diagram).
The first set of judgments of God upon human evil is brought about largely by God's releasing the usual restraints of evil that are now in place in society. The subsequent sets of judgments invoke cosmic disturbances in sun, moon and stars, and quite possibly one or more collisions of asteroids or comets with the earth. Nature is disrupted catastrophically--ruining the environment. Increasing demonic deception and oppression are unloosed on an unrepentant mankind. Nuclear exchanges, near and far, and the release of biological and chemical weapons can easily be fitted into the imagery of the book.
...all through the Bible you see that God's love is manifest to men everywhere in urging them to escape this judgment. God in love pleads with people, "Do not go on to this end!" But ultimately he must judge those who refuse his offer of grace. He says, in effect, "I love you and I can provide all you need. Therefore, love me, and you will find the fulfillment your heart is looking for." But many men and women say, "No, I do not want that. I will take your gifts, I will take all the good things you provide, but I do not want you! Let me run my own life. Let me serve my own ends. Let me have my own kingdom." To such, God ultimately says, "All right, have it your way!" God has three choices: First, he can let rebellion go on forever and never judge it. In this case the terrible things that are happening on earth, all these distressing injustices, the cruelty, the anger, the hate, the malice, the sorrow, the hurt, the pain, the death that now prevails will go on forever. God does not want that, and neither does man. Second, God can force men to obey him and control them as robots. But he will never do that because that means they cannot love him. Love cannot be forced. Therefore, third, the only choice God really has is that he must withdraw ultimately from those who refuse his love. He must let them have their own way forever. That results in terrible torment of godlessness. If God is necessary to us, then to take him out of our lives is to plunge us into the most terrible sense of loneliness and abandonment that mankind can know. (Ray Stedman,

Early in Revelation (Chapter 7) we are made aware that millions of people will come to know the Lord Jesus Christ during the seven-year end-time tribulation period. 144,000 Jewish evangelists trained and led by Jesus Himself will undertake this bold, final campaign of world-wide evangelism. Most of the converts will be quickly hunted down and executed by the united world government of that day--a government fully controlled by Satan.
Two "great" end-time world leaders are presented to us in Chapter 13. These men may seem to earth-dwellers to be great and charismatic leaders ready to save the world, but God refers to them as wild beasts. (This imagery is drawn from the prophet Daniel). The secular, military and political seat of world-power of earth's final governmental system will arise out of the now-developing European Union of nations. Religious inspiration (ultimately, the worship of man), and a temporary Middle-East peace treaty, will be promoted by a false Messiah, (the second beast) who comes to power in Israel.
"...But you [Jews] do not have His word abiding in you, because whom He sent, Him you do not believe. You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me. But you are not willing to come to Me that you may have life. I do not receive honor from men. But I know you, that you do not have the love of God in you. I have come in My Father's name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, him you will receive. How can you believe, who receive honor from one another, and do not seek the honor that comes from the only God? Do not think that I shall accuse you to the Father; there is one who accuses you--Moses, in whom you trust. For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me. But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?" (John 5:38-47)
In Revelation Chapter 12, the long history of believing, (true) Israel is portrayed as a woman wearing a crown of twelve stars, clothed with the sun and with the moon under her feet. We also see Satan exiled from heaven and cast down to earth by the archangel Michael. Satan is now furious, "knowing that his time is short." He wages war vigorously against the remnant of believing Jews who are exiled in Bozrah and Petra (Southern Jordan)--and he seeks out and kills anyone, anywhere, who would dare to name the name of Jesus.
Jesus Himself leads two great judgments described in Chapter 14. The long promised separation of the wheat and tares (announced by Jesus during his First Advent, Matthew 13) takes place.
Jesus also judges unbelieving Israel as one of their own kinsman who now has the role of the Avenger of Blood. Demonic forces unloosed by God have drawn together the armies of the world, numbering 200 million men--and the battleground of this terrible last war is within the tiny nation of Israel. Much of the blood shed will be Jewish blood. Jerusalem will be plundered and pillaged one more time by foreign armies (Zechariah 14).
"the angel thrust his sickle into the earth and gathered the vine of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. And the winepress was trampled outside the city [Jerusalem], and blood came out of the winepress, up to the horses' bridles, for one thousand six hundred furlongs [200 miles]." (14:19-20)
Revelation describes the final overthrow of what the Bible calls "the present world system." This occurs in two phases. The seven-year tribulation period begins soon after the removal of the true church at an event called the rapture. Left behind is a counterfeit ("harlot") church whose influence in world affairs grows very strong for the next several years. Then the world-ruler--beast number one--insists on being worshipped as God and stops tolerating even that false church which previously worked in his favor. The judgment of all false religion--the great harlot--is portrayed for us in Revelation 17.
"The waters which you saw, where the harlot sits, are peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues. And the ten horns which you saw on the beast, these will hate the harlot, make her desolate and naked, eat her flesh and burn her with fire. For God has put it into their hearts to fulfill His purpose, to be of one mind, and to give their kingdom to the beast, until the words of God are fulfilled. And the woman whom you saw is that great city which reigns over the kings of the earth." (17:15-18)
Revelation 18 describes the sudden and violent overthrow of the commercial, economic, political power structures of the world system, also part of Mystery Babylon. This seems to occur at the end in conjunction with the actual Second Advent of Christ:
"And there were noises and thunderings and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such a mighty and great earthquake as had not occurred since men were on the earth. Now the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And great Babylon was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath. Then every island fled away, and the mountains were not found. And great hail from heaven fell upon men, each hailstone about the weight of a talent [75 lbs.]. Men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail, since that plague was exceedingly great." (16:18-21)
In Chapter 20, Jesus steps out from behind the scenes of the invisible heavenly places and boldly assumes rule over the world. His return to the Mount of Olive in power and splendor initiates the last great world-wide earthquake, the destruction of the major cities of the world, and drastic topographic and geological changes over the face of the whole planet. The assembled armies of the world now turn to fight against God, but Jesus Himself overthrows them. The beast and the false prophet meet their appointed end. Jesus begins his thousand year rebuilding program for a devastated earth, establishing new world wide governments based on truth and righteousness.
Now I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse. And He who sat on him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and makes war. His eyes were like a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns. He had a name written that no one knew except Himself. He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses. Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And He has on His robe and on His thigh a name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS.
Then I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in the midst of heaven, "Come and gather together for the supper of the great God, "that you may eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses and of those who sit on them, and the flesh of all people, free and slave, both small and great." And I saw the beast, the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against Him who sat on the horse and against His army. Then the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet who worked signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. These two were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone. And the rest were killed with the sword which proceeded from the mouth of Him who sat on the horse. And all the birds were filled with their flesh. Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, having the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him, so that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years were finished." (19:11-20:3)
Revelation 20 also describes for us the great final judgment of the unbelievers of earth down through all of history. Every individual will receive a fair trial according to what was written "in the books"--but only those whose names are in the "Lamb's Book of Life" can move on into the kingdom of God.
The Apocalypse closes with brief description of the great heavenly city of New Jerusalem--apparently a satellite city almost the size of the moon--which perhaps orbits the earth. The magnificent city has plenty of room for the saints of all ages--God's people--to dwell in comfort and with great joy.
The final and total end of all evil is promised in Revelation 21-22--a "new heavens and a new earth." God's people can look forward to adventures beyond his present life which will be grander than anything we can now imagine. The good news is that the invitation to join in and be part of all this is still open to all of us today.
"Do not seal the words of the prophecy of this book, for the time is at hand. He who is unjust, let him be unjust still; he who is filthy, let him be filthy still; he who is righteous, let him be righteous still; he who is holy, let him be holy still. And behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to give to every one according to his work. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last. Blessed are those who do His commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city. But outside are dogs and sorcerers and sexually immoral and murderers and idolaters, and whoever loves and practices a lie. I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things in the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the Bright and Morning Star." And the Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" And let him who hears say, "Come!" And let him who thirsts come. Whoever desires, let him take the water of life freely." (22:10-17)
Should we read the Book of Revelation? Indeed, we should get to know it well. The age we live in is already an age of terrible deception and this will grow worse. Yet earth's long-awaited golden age may be a mere seven years away from us. Every day we live brings us one day close to the time on God's calendar when the great events of the last book of he Bible will unfold.
I am just now finishing teaching the Book of the Revelation. Though I have read and taught this book many times before, there were many things that became clearer this time through. I hope these short notes will provoke many of you to study this book for yourselves and receive the blessing it promises. If you should be interested, our class notes and audio files are on my web site,

News: A friend of mine serving God in Korea recently called my attention to two great books which are must reading. The Heavenly Man is the biography of an amazing Christian leader in China, Brother Yun. Paul Hathaway has also put together a related book, Back to Jerusalem, which describes an amazing movement in China. Since the gospel reached China mainly from Europe via America--spreading East to West, it is logical that the church in China should assume the responsibility of closing the gap from China back to Jerusalem. The Chinese church is the ideal group to quietly evangelize the Muslim world and move through the 10-40 window of unreached nations. Both of these books make what we call the normal Christian life here in America seem third-rate in comparison with the daily experiences of many of our Christian brothers and sisters in China. The easy way to get copies of this book is to order them from
My mentor, pastor and friend, Ray C. Stedman, pastor at Peninsula Bible Church in Palo Alto, went home to be with the Lord in 1992 but his sermons and books are more popular now than ever. A new independent web site with all of Ray's sermons in printed form or audio mp3 is now online at The new server is very fast--and a large fraction of the traffic is for Ray's sermons in audio form. The audio files have all been restored and redigitized so that they sound like new. We are currently adding all of Ray's books (whether in print or out of print) to the web site, and we have plans to put the entire web site on a single DVD later this year in cooperation with Firefighters for Christ (See
Contributions: Friends who want to help out with my expenses may send contributions directly to me by means of the PayPal or the links on my web site. For those who'd like to contribute for tax purposes, checks may be sent to Peninsula Bible Church, 3505 Middlefield Road, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Please include a note designating my support account. I do not always receive a list of those who send in contributions so I can not send thank you notes in most cases. I am not a wealthy man (except in the Lord)--my finances are often precariously on the edge.
Lambert Dolphin
May 20, 2005